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2 edition of Characterisation of the damage to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of cultured vascular endothelial cells induced by hyperglycaemia and various chemical agents found in the catalog.

Characterisation of the damage to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of cultured vascular endothelial cells induced by hyperglycaemia and various chemical agents

Nader David Egawhary

Characterisation of the damage to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of cultured vascular endothelial cells induced by hyperglycaemia and various chemical agents

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Published by typescript in [s.l.] .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis (Ph.D.) - University of Warwick, 1997.

StatementNader David Egawhary.
The Physical Object
Paginationxv,220p.
Number of Pages220
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL17473744M

  Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA is inversely related to maximum life span in the heart and brain of mammals. FASEB J. Feb;14(2) PMID: [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Herrero A, Barja G. 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine levels in heart and brain mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of. mitochondrial DNA definition: DNA contained in mitochondria: it is abundant, highly resistant to damage, and, because it is inherited only through the mother, useful in forensic investigations, in tracing ancestry, and in studying evolutionary change: abbrev. m. The free radical theory of aging (FRTA) states that organisms age because cells accumulate free radical damage over time. A free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell. While a few free radicals such as melanin are not chemically reactive, most biologically relevant free radicals are highly reactive. For most biological structures, free radical. describe the topic the damage of mitochondrial DNA is used as a marker of oxidative stress and explain why using those methods and what information or results would get out Do you want your assignment written by the best essay experts? Then look no further. Our teams of experienced writers are on standby to deliver Continue reading "The damage of mitochondrial DNA".


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Characterisation of the damage to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of cultured vascular endothelial cells induced by hyperglycaemia and various chemical agents by Nader David Egawhary Download PDF EPUB FB2

Since mtDNA replication is dependent on transcription, mtDNA damage may alter mitochondrial gene expression at three levels: by causing DNA polymerase γ nucleotide incorporation errors leading to mutations, by interfering with the priming of mtDNA replication by the mitochondrial RNA polymerase, or by inducing transcriptional mutagenesis or premature transcript by: Koczor, C.

et al. Mitochondrial DNA damage initiates a cell cycle arrest by a Chk2-associated mechanism in mammalian cells. Biol. Chem.– Cited by: 5. Construction and Characterization of a Cell Line Deficient in Repair of Mitochondrial, but Not Nuclear, Oxidative DNA Damage Sugako Oka, Mizuki Ohno, Yusaku Nakabeppu Pages Characterisation of the damage to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of cultured vascular endothelial cells induced by hyperglycaemia and various chemical agents.

Thesis (Thesis) Find all citations by this author (default). The Biogenesis of Mitochondria: Transcriptional, Translational and Genetic Aspects covers the symposium, ""Biogenesis of Mitochondria"", held in Rosa Marina near Bari, Italy in June Organized into three parts, this book first discusses the mechanism, products, and role of mitochondrial DNA in mitochondrial transcription, including the.

It’s known that FQ’s indeed do direct genomic damage to mitochondrial DNA, as evidenced by mitochondrial DNA breaks from FQ treated cells. On the other hand, it’s my opinion that mitochondria are as much or more vulnerable to FQ’s due to indirect damage as well.

The thing to know about mitochondria. However, the hypothesis that turnover (degradation) of damaged mtDNA can be a mechanism used by mitochondria to deal with either excessive damage, or damage that can not be repaired did not take hold in part due to the lack of direct experimental evidence supporting it and in part due to discovery of mitochondrial BER (Pettepher et al., ), which shifted attention from unrepairable lesions to Cited by: 3.

The circular mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Phymatostetha huangshanensis is 17, bp long. It contains the typical set of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and a large control by: 8. Mormons and Mitochondrial DNA by Chad Ressler In August Simon Southerton released a book entitled Losing a Lost Tribe: Native Americans, DNA, and the Mormon Church.

1 Southerton concludes from studies of mitochondrial DNA of Native Americans that the Mormon claim of their descent from Israeli immigrants is unsupported by DNA evidence.

consequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage based on the analysis of v ariabil- ity of mitochondrial genome. The paper is devoted to identi cation of genetic markers. From the reviews: "The study of the variation in mitochondrial DNA has significantly deepened our knowledge about human dispersal.

The book is clearly written and benefits from the true experts in the field. it provides a strong and helpful basis and serves as a well-selected summary. everybody involved in mtDNA research is sooner or later advised to have a look at it."Format: Hardcover.

Some forms of mitochondrial DNA damage can apparently trigger mitochondrial DNA destruction, either via direct degradation or through specific forms of autophagy, such as mitophagy.

However, accumulation of certain types of mitochondrial damage, in the absence of DNA ligase III (Lig3) or exonuclease G (EXOG), enzymes required for Characterisation of the damage to the mitochondrial DNA book, can directly trigger cell by:   DNA serves as a lineal history, a family album, a passport that bears the marks of both origin and journey.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is inherited only from the mother. All cells have DNA so it shouldn't be surprising that mitochondria also have some DNA still if this theory is true. Biologists do think that some of the mitochondrial DNA still functions, but many of its functions have been lost due to the lack of selective pressure (if it is not needed because of redundencies in the nuclear DNA from the larger.

In Mitochondrial DNA: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition, specialists from eight countries share their expertise, providing detailed protocols for studying many aspects of mtDNA.

The volume is divided into three sections, which cover the transduction of information from mtDNA to functionally active respiratory complexes, mitochondrial. Mitochondrial DNA control region as a tool for species identification and distinction between wolves and dogs from Croatia Article (PDF Available) in Veterinarski Arhiv (81) March.

Characterisation of the damage to the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of cultured vascular endothelial cells induced by hyperglycaemia and various chemical agents. Author: Egawhary, Nader David. ISNI: Awarding Body: University of Warwick. However, with regard to DNA damage, few studies have looked into the effect of curcumin on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA).

The kb mitochondrial genome has been fully sequenced and encodes for only 13 proteins involved in the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation (Linnane et al., ).Cited by:   Key To Aging: Mitochondrial DNA.

"It seems to be a universal phenomenon in mammals that you have this damage to mitochondrial DNA as you get older," said the study's senior author, Nils-Goran. mtDNA mutations occur in a wide variety of degenerative diseases and cancer.

mtDNA seems to be more susceptible to DNA damage and consequently sustains higher rates of mutation than does nuclear DNA (nDNA). Many of the somatic mtDNA mutations in human cancers are located in the displacement loop (D-loop) and in particular in a polycytidine stretch (C-tract) termed DCited by: Comprehensive and timely, Mitochondrial DNA: Methods and Protocols offers both basic and clinical researchers proven cutting-edge methods for analyzing the role mtDNA plays in the aging process, apoptosis, and possibly some cancers, and for investigating the cause of mitochondrial.

As noted above, mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, and the vicious cycle between them has been linked to every chronic disease that plagues people – diabetes, Alzheimer’s, autism, etc. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics damage mitochondria and cause an increase in ROS/oxidative stress. Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the DNA (hereditary material that is passed from parent to child) is packaged within the nucleus of each cell (known as nuclear DNA).

However, mitochondria (the structures in each cell that produce energy) contain a small. MITOCHONDRIAL GENOME: This genome consists of a circular chromosome,kb in size that is located inside the mitochondrial organelle,not in the nucleus.

Most cells contain at least mtDNA molecules distributed among hundreds of individual mitochondria. Not all the RNA and protein synthesized in a cell are encoded in the DNA of the nucleus. Activation of the inflammasome protein complex in immune cells is a key step that triggers an innate immune response.

It emerges that the synthesis and oxidation of mitochondrial DNA Cited by: 2. MITOCHONDRIAL DNA STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION mitochondria. ATA codes for methionine in mitochondria but isoleucine in the cytosol. Finally, AGA or AGG in mitochondria code for a stop codon instead of arginine (Table I) (Anderson et al., ).

IIh Slructure of the Human mtDNA D-Loop Region. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial genes are more vulnerable than nuclear DNA and nuclear genes to damage caused by chemical toxicants (like pharmaceuticals and environmental pollutants) because mitochondrial genes “sit on a single circular chromosome (unlike the linear chromosomes of the nucleus) and are ‘naked’ – they’re.

If this mitochondrial DNA damage is not repaired, it can lead to disruption of the electron transport chain and increased generation of ROS, possibly resulting in vicious cycle of ROS production and mitochondrial DNA damage, leading to energy depletion and ultimately cell death (Harman, ; Miquel et al., ).

Therefore suggesting that mitochondria must employ some form of repair or defence mechanism against such forms of deleterious by: 1. In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy degree in the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Danielle Reid will present a research proposal seminar entitled, “Characterization of Mitochondrial DNA Damage in Complex Disease Using Two Different NGS Platforms” on Maat p.m.

at https://unthsc. Mitochondrial DNA contains 37 genes, all of which are essential for normal mitochondrial function. Thirteen of these genes provide instructions for making enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Oxidative phosphorylation is a process that uses oxygen and simple sugars to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the cell's main energy source.

A study that focused on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) included 21 Veterans with Gulf War illness (GWI) and seven controls. In blood tests, researchers observed more lesions and more mitochondrial DNA—that is, extra copies of genes—in Veterans with Gulf War illness, relative to controls without the illness, suggesting excess DNA damage.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex eye disease that affects millions of people worldwide and is the main reason for legal blindness and vision loss in the elderly in developed countries. Although the cause of AMD pathogenesis is not known, oxidative stress-related damage to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is considered an early event in AMD by: 3.

Once, there was thought to be a positive feedback loop at work (a 'Vicious Cycle'); as mitochondrial DNA accumulates genetic damage caused by free radicals, the mitochondria lose function and leak free radicals into the cytosol.

A decrease in mitochondrial function reduces overall metabolic efficiency. Apr. 28, — A five-year study has found the mechanism responsible for repairing damage to mitochondrial DNA. This discovery could pave the way for new treatments for cancer and. Mitochondria in Complex Diseases will explore the impact of these cellular powerhouses in physiology and medicine.

Beyond their well-known function as the regulator of cellular energy metabolism, mitochondria also function in cellular signaling, differentiation, cell death, regulating the cell cycle and cell growth, reactive oxygen species generation, and regulation of the epigenome.

Issue: Aug Three-Step Strategy to Reverse Mitochondrial Aging. According to cell biologists, the health of your mitochondria determines how long you will live. Research confirms how three compounds not only reduce damage to mitochondrial DNA but generate new, healthy mitochondria.

By Michael Downey, Health & Wellness Author. Mitochondrial DNA deletions and mitochondrial myopathy have subsequently been associated with the spontaneously occurring chronic external progressive ophthalmopelgia.

The second article reported that a missense mutation at nucleotide (nt) 11, (G > A) in the mtDNA ND4 polypeptide (RH) was the cause of maternally inherited Leber hereditary Cited by: Mutations within mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the nuclear genes involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA have been linked to a wide range of human diseases, including several of the most common diseases of aging.

In Mitochondrial DNA: Methods and Protocols internationally recognized. The mammalian mitochondrion is formed of ~ proteins, the vast majority of which are encoded in and expressed from the nuclear genome, whilst a small subset of these proteins is encoded by the spatially and heritably separate mitochondrial genome [10, 11] (Fig.

1a).The human mitochondrial genome is a genetically compact, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule of kb, Cited by: 8. Thanks for the thoughtful response.

I had in mind, but didn’t state explicitly, mitochondrial DNA originally finding its way into eukaryotic cells through just such an infection. Instead of devising ways to get healthy mitochondria through an otherwise healthy cell wall, it might be less work to deliver the DNA for healthy mitochondria by CRISPR.

Get this from a library! Mitochondrial DNA: methods and protocols. [Jeffrey A Stuart;] -- "Since the publication of the first edition, the number of unique heritable mtDNA mutations recognized as being associated with bioenergetic dysfunction, cell death and disease has grown.

Likewise.DNA damage over years is a major cause of aging. 4 | Infoaging Guide to DNA Damage and Repair. multi-stage process. Each step requires a different DNA repair. protein, and successful repair requires that all of these proteins work correctly, in the proper order.

It is a complex, almost miraculous piece of work. However, some-File Size: KB.These DNA damage assay kits are for the determination of damaged - kb mitochondrial DNA sequences in vivo and in vitro by quantification of the replicated DNA with real-PCR following QPCR analysis. Each kit is supplied with appropriate primer and DNA standards depending on whether you are analyzing mtDNA from human, mouse or rat.

This DNA damage assay kit allows for duplicate analysis.